# Kingman's formula (org design)

Kingman’s approximation states are equal to

where *τ* is the mean service time (i.e. *μ* = 1/*τ* is the service rate), *λ* is the mean arrival rate, *ρ* = *λ*/*μ* is the utilization, *ca* is the coefficient of variation for arrivals (that is the standard deviation of arrival times divided by the mean arrival time) and *cs* is the coefficient of variation for service times.

### Summary:

Working at or close to 100% utilization will slow everything that depends on you to crawl.

### Resolution:

Leaders can reduce dependent work using [[ Eisenhower Decision Matrix ]] from Important and drop or delegate work from Non-Important.

### ❞ Referred In

Amdhal's law

The overall performance improvement gained by optimizing a single part of a system is limited by the fraction of time...